How To Survive the Little Ice Age

Wissenschaft & Technik

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Nunalleq, a village in what’s today southwest Alaska, seemed to have thrived during the Little Ice Age. How did this village manage to survive and prosper during this time period? And what caused this period of climate change in the first place?
Check out the Nunalleq Archaeology Project's incredible educational resource: as well as their blog:
Special thanks to Qanirtuuq Native Village Corporation, University of Aberdeen and 3DVisLab University of Dundee for providing us with incredible footage and animations for this episode. Illustrations/animations/footage from the Nunalleq Archaeology Project are by Alice Watterson, with characters by Tom Paxton.
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:
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  • Tuco Ramires
    Tuco RamiresVor 11 Stunden

    When things got worse they ended up killing each other.

  • Aye One
    Aye OneVor 16 Stunden

    "something that rarely happens in now" Uhh duh... We haven't even peaked this interglacial yet

  • gobblinal
    gobblinalVor Tag

    So technically, we are still in the "little ice age"? It's not like we've reforested all that agricultural land. It's just that the Industrial Revolution happened and that raised the planet temperature back up to "normal" levels. And beyond of course. Oops?

  • roxymusi
    roxymusiVor Tag

    Stradivarius’ stringed instruments, highly sought after violins, cellos, violas, have their special sound quality partially because of the mini ice age. The wood was denser. I say partially as Stradivarius was also an amazing luthier. Excellent, ultra rare materials in expert hands. Perfect storm of awesome.

  • The Lost One
    The Lost OneVor 2 Tage

    For years now, I have been promised a new ice age because of the solar minimum by DElevelrs.’s almost as if they don’t understand the science and are just using confirmation biases to justify their bad beliefs....

  • Frogboy Clips
    Frogboy ClipsVor 2 Tage

    Climate change?

  • Robert Fuchs
    Robert FuchsVor 3 Tage

    How about publishing a video about surviving the little ice age which is ahead of us, instead of the one 500 years ago?

  • deLeon2046
    deLeon2046Vor 3 Tage

    i love her voice

  • Sebastiam Garcia
    Sebastiam GarciaVor 4 Tage

    I love videos like these that show how humans literally evolved to be hunter gatherers. Hence our worldwide success

  • Jacky Haruhiko
    Jacky HaruhikoVor 5 Tage

    This little ice age coincident with the Manchu conquest of the whole China. The whole Han Chinese nation was toppled by an ethnic minority Manchus and was ruled for 260+ years since the year 1644. The Manchu empire started to disintegrate by the mid-1850s and was overthrown in the Xinhai revolution in 1911.

  • Brian Bierlein
    Brian BierleinVor 8 Tage

    The lesson this episode really teaches is us if you want to survive an ice age, don't be a vegetarian. :P

  • Gajanan Nigade
    Gajanan NigadeVor 8 Tage

    Sweater, mittens, hot chocolate

  • Franklin Miller
    Franklin MillerVor 9 Tage

    Before the little ice age was the medieval warm period where there was no real winter for decades! So warm there was a abundance wine industry in England!! And large parts of Greenland had green rolling hills of grass and a large viking communities with many viking villages and many towns!! 🙉🙈🙊🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸

  • real name
    real nameVor 9 Tage

    While we think of the past our ancestors were thinking of the future

  • Kolerick Bloodmoon
    Kolerick BloodmoonVor 10 Tage

    yesterday humans had to team up with the sun and volcanoes to change climate... today humans: "hold my CO2"

  • mistersantosnyc
    mistersantosnycVor 10 Tage

    I could hardly concentrate (& I'm saying this in the best way possible) because of how achingly beautiful & (to my non-native eye) representational the animations were. They really did a lot to fuel my imagination about First Nation folk in these areas. Thank you so much

  • Guy H.
    Guy H.Vor 11 Tage

    You rock Eons! One item I wish you would have touched on was what the relative temperatures might have been. Love the videos!

  • Stew95
    Stew95Vor 11 Tage

    Scary to think this is Going to happen again soon

  • jenny alberts
    jenny albertsVor 12 Tage

    pbs eons: let me tell you about this one time, when me: it was volcanoes wasnt it pbs eons: volcanoes!

  • Barbara7Blood
    Barbara7BloodVor 12 Tage

    Please do a episode on the evolution of sleeping

  • Archangel Metatron
    Archangel MetatronVor 14 Tage

    lol It's still the ice age genius. You still see glaciers. We reside in the goldilocks zone. That means the Earth isn't supposed to have glaciers. It's an artificial event. Asteroid impact. Their dating systems are debunked. The asteroid hit 4500-5500 years ago. It flash fried megatons of ocean water and caused a tsunami like has never been seen. The impact ruptured water tables causing water to jut up from the subteranean aquifers like geisers. It blotted out the sun causing a precipitous temperature drop globally due to clouds and smoke and debris and ashes. Volcanoes erupted simultaneously. There was a great earthquake. After the dust had cleared it was still cloudy all around the world. Constant rain for a month and a half. When the clouds cleared the cooling process had dropped the average temperature of the Earth to the coldest it's ever been. The waters receded into new and old aquifers once things settled down but the the whole time it was reflecting thelight back out of our atmosphere accelerating the cooling. Ever since we have been warming to pre-asteroid/flood conditions. Our climate issues are not caused by man. They are caused by an Asteroid. Another is coming. Revelation 7-8 Not too soon because death is defeated first which means all power, dominion, and authority are defeated first. The asteroid coming will breach the Earth creating a chasm. A bottomless pit. Those on one side will not be able to cross it.

  • Knyght Ryder
    Knyght RyderVor 14 Tage

    Do an episode on Anise

  • Scott Richardson
    Scott RichardsonVor 16 Tage

    Fahrenheit, hilarious..... 😁🇨🇦

  • suicune690
    suicune690Vor 16 Tage

    I can't even imagine what future archaeologists will find in our landfills...

  • ЛевМЭХ
    ЛевМЭХVor 16 Tage

    impressive pronunciation of the /q/!

  • W Bear
    W BearVor 17 Tage

    I love your vids

  • Adepta Potentia
    Adepta PotentiaVor 17 Tage

    So the revolutionary war went down during an ice age? That’s terrifying honestly.

  • John Barber
    John BarberVor 17 Tage

    How to?. You're a bit late for that.

  • Brad Clifton
    Brad CliftonVor 17 Tage

    Small, diverse, self reliant communities are the goal. Big cities will be crushed under their own weight.

  • John Jacobs
    John JacobsVor 17 Tage


  • John Jacobs
    John JacobsVor 17 Tage


  • Eva Rabago
    Eva RabagoVor 17 Tage

    Can you do one about how teeth specialized?

  • Edward Kenway
    Edward KenwayVor 18 Tage

    "How to survive the Little Ice Age?" - Just do what humans do best and pump trillions of tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere until you can enjoy the new heat and moisture age.

  • Ica Francoel
    Ica FrancoelVor 18 Tage

    Evolution of tyrannosaurus rexes communication and other dinos.

  • Tessa D777
    Tessa D777Vor 18 Tage

    very interesting that the "fact checker" put up a link to Wikipedia, as if that were a reliable source of info

  • Birdie Jeffers
    Birdie JeffersVor 18 Tage

    I didn't exactly learn how to survive the impending mini ice age 🤔

  • Wendel Rosa Borges
    Wendel Rosa BorgesVor 18 Tage

    You are awesome! Loved the animations! Important advertise about the original peoples. Thank you for that content!

  • Psychlops 924
    Psychlops 924Vor 19 Tage

    So when we’re talking about climate change, we only ever look back to the 1850’s. Can someone explain to me why? As this video explains, the 1850’s was the end of the Little Ice Age. Why are we using the end of a cooling period for the baseline of where earth’s temperatures should be? If we were to look back 10,000 years, for example, we’d see that higher temperatures than today have happened many times. I know we like to use 1850 because that’s pre-Industrial Revolution, but the Little Ice Age makes today’s temperatures look a lot warmer than they actually are.

  • executor5588


    Vor 16 Tage

    I suggest you to check Railsback's Fundamentals of Quaternary Science over the internet ;-)

  • AdamosDad
    AdamosDadVor 19 Tage

    Why not put temperatures in Fahrenheit as well as Celsius so that most of the people that are from North America and others that use the Imperial measures, can understand. It looks a little snobbish to many of us to never be included in these PBS videos.

  • James D
    James DVor 19 Tage

    Periods of climate change that have apparently occurred in history like this one are why I'm afraid to form a real opinion about climate change. Until we know for sure how ice ages occur naturally, we don't have a complete understanding of our planets climate.

  • Anne O'Nymous
    Anne O'NymousVor 20 Tage

    Now you should do a few videos on how, during the time of humans, climates have been much warmer than currently. But I guess that wouldn't fit in with your constant fear-mongering about "climate change".

  • Aarde A.A.
    Aarde A.A.Vor 20 Tage

    "I need a moo-sage too" Did...did you just burn yourself by calling yourself a cow?? :P lol

  • Elizabeth Alleman
    Elizabeth AllemanVor 20 Tage

    Note that the indicated time range begins roughly concurrently with that of the Colombian exchange. It bears note that North and South American peoples made extensive use of biome manipulation via fire, burning off undesired vegetation frequently, either to clear land entirely to the benefit of crop or fodder species, or to encourage ease of hunting. This pattern of burns is fairly extensive and significant, and is well attested to archeologically and in the journals of westerners at the very earliest dawn of the Exchange. Estimates of indigenous american population crash in the first century of the Exchange do vary widely, but even at the more conservative end were catastrophic. Widespread social disruption was severe. Notably here is that physical and document evidence of deliberate burns falls off precipitously, becoming relatively rare in a very short period of time, and paralleled by incredible drops in population and the end of many cultures and cultural networks. The point here is that in addition to the factors mentioned in the video, one should take into consideration a much larger and more involved role for the "changed land use" argument that weighs more heavily on the role of carbon dioxide and human activity.

  • Elizabeth Alleman

    Elizabeth Alleman

    Vor 20 Tage

    Much of this line of argument is derived from the book (and background references) "1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus" by Charles C. Mann.

  • Eelke V.
    Eelke V.Vor 20 Tage

    As a Dutch person I loved the reference to our frozen canals! We treasure those paintings by Bruegel. Even though the canals don’t freeze often, skating is still an important part of our culture

  • Phil Lange
    Phil LangeVor 21 Tag

    The idea that a colder climate means a more difficult life shows an agriculturalist bias. If you live by hunting animals it can be the opposite---colder weather means a better life with more animals and food available. So many factors... (1) Colder water holds more oxygen, so for maritime hunters and gatherers, colder waters mean more oxygen is in suspension in the water means more oxygen for small forms of life like krill and their friends which larger beasties (sea mammals, fish, shellfish) feast on and thrive; (2) imagine herds of caribou and musk oxen... a truly cold, dry climate means their fur coats receive blasts of dry snow, which falls off easily, but if temperatures rise substantially, then the snow that falls will more often be damp and stick in clumps to the fur and so cause the poor animals to freeze. Musk oxen have been found with their coats completely matted solid with ice that was damp snow that turned to ice, (3) for grazing, cold, dry winters can mean easily-reached plants for grazing, warmer temps mean wetter snow fall and can cause entire grazing areas to be iced over so no grazing is available -- > death by starvation.. Many other factors, of course.

  • ChillBloC
    ChillBloCVor 21 Tag

    and then here comes the “Snowball Earth 🌎 +⚪️ “

  • Brodeman Hessianovski
    Brodeman HessianovskiVor 21 Tag

    Lmao Nono it was definitely those pesky cavemen clearing all those forests !

  • Frank Burnham
    Frank BurnhamVor 21 Tag

    She got to go! Moo sauce

  • abby theredwolf
    abby theredwolfVor 21 Tag

    It still amazes me how this truly wasn’t that long ago in the whole picture of life and is insane to me where this planet is today and how evolution has change

  • yems
    yems 21 Tag

    Do a video on how unmovable filter feeders started moving and got eyes and mouths

  • tori agnew
    tori agnewVor 22 Tage

    Your hair looks great! And love your tatts too! Smart and beautiful is a killer combo

  • Mello
    MelloVor 22 Tage

    0:58 can confirm

  • Justin David
    Justin DavidVor 22 Tage

    The earth gets cold then hot naturally? But... but... racist!

  • Mike Sorensen
    Mike SorensenVor 22 Tage

    First of all, they never answered the title, second it was massive volcanic activity, third the village in Alaska did not have the big population like in Europe. They still try to blame climate change on human activity centuries ago😱🤔

  • Brodeman Hessianovski

    Brodeman Hessianovski

    Vor 21 Tag

    Laughed out loud at that part 🙂

  • Ghost Cowboy
    Ghost CowboyVor 22 Tage

    Didn't eat the caribou??? Yeah fkin right lol

  • 1997giannis
    1997giannisVor 22 Tage

    little ice age is here again forget global warming the media is lying

  • Kwok Yat Wai
    Kwok Yat WaiVor 22 Tage

    this womans s’s icsssse age

  • Freedom Operator
    Freedom OperatorVor 22 Tage

    Leave the trash buried. Helping cause global climate change in the name of science? That is a lot of sequestered carbon they are disturbing. Rules for me, but not for science, it would seem.

  • Freedom Operator

    Freedom Operator

    Vor 21 Tag

    @Brodeman Hessianovski Pointing out the obvious is just too easy.

  • Brodeman Hessianovski

    Brodeman Hessianovski

    Vor 21 Tag

    Pro troll move haha

  • Ryan Depauw
    Ryan DepauwVor 22 Tage

    You acknowledge the indigenous people at the end but do you send them any money for using their story to get DElevel likes and views? Or is it just another form of virtue signaling? Empty land acknowledgements are almost as bad treaty-breakers.

  • D Flatt
    D FlattVor 22 Tage

    5:00 Why wouldn't they eat the caribou? Really?

  • D Flatt
    D FlattVor 22 Tage

    It seems nature likes to pull a soft reboot sometimes.

  • Dawson Mercer
    Dawson MercerVor 22 Tage

    The Little Ice Age That Could

  • Sean Foltz
    Sean FoltzVor 22 Tage

    So you're saying that the increase in temperature we're seeing is a natural increase that happened as a result of the little ice age ending.

  • executor5588


    Vor 16 Tage

    You can see it over the global reports made by Berkeley Earth each year

  • peter lewis
    peter lewisVor 22 Tage

    So in a climate heating emergency i can put this down the list of urgent things to remember

  • trimdinbusk
    trimdinbuskVor 23 Tage

    Fimbul winter anyone??

  • tubeyhamster
    tubeyhamsterVor 23 Tage

    Good episode! I love learning about the little Ice Age!

  • Forever Pink F.
    Forever Pink F.Vor 23 Tage

    Maybe one of the first warning shots from climate.

  • Terrell Lykken
    Terrell LykkenVor 23 Tage

    Save the planet, stop plate tectonics!

  • Nerdsworth Poindexter
    Nerdsworth PoindexterVor 23 Tage

    USGS surface water elevation data in the Florida Bay shows that sea levels rose sharply between 2009-2016, however, they dropped significantly in 2017. They're still at this low level.

  • William R Buchanan
    William R BuchananVor 23 Tage

    Just because it happen before, is not going verify it will occur the same again.!

  • William R Buchanan
    William R BuchananVor 23 Tage

    Drink plenty of alcohol,antifreeze is made of it.for a while.!

  • 1jodie
    1jodieVor 23 Tage

    Hello Kallie, I just wanted to tell you that you inspire me to be a prepared and informed professional. I am always so impressed with your episodes. I also love your nails and adorable pins. I SO WISH you had been on my screen when I was a child. I am so thrilled to see a self-determined woman in the sciences for girls to see today! I would like to see an episode on protostones and deuterstones because I just think it would be funny to talk about. Maybe make the skinny guy do it because I like when he gets queasy.

  • aaron laluzerne
    aaron laluzerneVor 23 Tage

    And to think people, we might have another Ice Age or Glacial maximum happening in the near future around the 2030's to 2040's thanks to the sun going into grand solar minimum. Well we might as well start getting prepared.

  • Anthony Jonh Mendoza Tablazon
    Anthony Jonh Mendoza TablazonVor 23 Tage

    7:32 I live near Mt. Melibengoy.

  • Augustus
    AugustusVor 23 Tage

    We in little greenhouse now.

  • Cole Cole
    Cole ColeVor 23 Tage

    I have never really understood dislikes on videos like this are people that bitter?

  • Al Grosser
    Al GrosserVor 23 Tage


  • K Tex
    K TexVor 23 Tage

    We are entering a grand solar minimum right now. It is about to get VERY cold. Look up Valentina Zharkova. Stop listening to government paid media.

  • Delistd
    DelistdVor 23 Tage

    Don't you know the earth has been the same temperature until man came around? I mean, gosh, all the cars and cows is what changes the weather, not the earth or the sun.

  • Jake Wilson
    Jake WilsonVor 23 Tage

    An awful lot of speculation going on here.

  • Nathan O'Halloran
    Nathan O'HalloranVor 23 Tage

    I really like the animations used for depicting the village. Nice touch. PBS Eons is great like that though.

  • Marc Darren
    Marc DarrenVor 23 Tage

    *Exhale into your hands. Godspeed.*

  • mohdz tv
    mohdz tvVor 23 Tage

    How to survive a lil ice age Turn off the lil ice age

  • W Bear

    W Bear

    Vor 17 Tage


  • JerkStoreAssistManag
    JerkStoreAssistManagVor 23 Tage

    Beautiful hair!

  • Joel Martinez
    Joel MartinezVor 23 Tage

    Why am I getting the notification 2 days later 😒

  • Nikita Patel
    Nikita PatelVor 23 Tage

    I love the animation in this video

  • Truly Infamous
    Truly InfamousVor 23 Tage

    The music in this video makes me think of Hollow Knight.

  • Just Number
    Just NumberVor 23 Tage

    more like this plz edit: not trying to be creepy but your hair looks great!

  • MegasAditya
    MegasAdityaVor 24 Tage

    Yay! Animations!

  • Nathan Robert
    Nathan RobertVor 24 Tage

    Came for the knowledge but stayed for the cartoon floofs marching prominently

  • SomethingStupid
    SomethingStupidVor 24 Tage

    Bro can we get an eons podcast

  • SomethingStupid


    Vor 24 Tage

    I would definitely donate if there was

  • Amayk Ucchash
    Amayk UcchashVor 24 Tage

    Pls make a video about evaluation of spider

  • Neil of Longbeck
    Neil of LongbeckVor 24 Tage

    The Little Ice Age is also responsible for the cliche of snow at Christmas as Chatkes Duckens grew up during the latter part of the Little Ice Age.

  • Mister Sir
    Mister SirVor 24 Tage

    They didn't eat the meat of the caribu?!

  • Dog Walker
    Dog WalkerVor 24 Tage

    Those animations were absolutely adorable

  • Emilio Cofinco
    Emilio CofincoVor 24 Tage

    The little ice age occurred due a deep solar minima (Maunder minimum). During this time period the sun has little to no solar activity. No sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, nothing! As a result, the heliosphere contracts and weakens thus allowing a higher amount of cosmic rays into the solar system. A cosmic ray maximum leads to greater cloud nucleation and silica rich magma nucleation, thus leading to an increase in volcanic activity and greater cloud coverage. Consequently plunging the global climate in the northern hemisphere, leading to famine. This is about to happen again! Grand solar minimum. Great reset.

  • cloudpoint


    Vor 24 Tage

    Periods of huge increases in cosmic rays called Laschamp geomagnetic excursions have been examined and no climate effect was noted. The effect of cosmic rays is just too small to matter to the Earth's climate.

  • Kelly Dalstok
    Kelly DalstokVor 24 Tage

    Even the Thames froze over in winter, which is much rarer than the Dutch canals freezing over, because the Thames water is brackish. They held frost fairs, markets and played games on the ice. At one time, an elephant walked on the ice.

  • cloudpoint


    Vor 24 Tage

    "The last great freeze of the higher Thames was in 1962-63. Frost fairs were a rare event even in the coldest parts of the Little Ice Age. Some of the recorded frost fairs were in 695, 1608, 1683-4, 1716, 1739-40, 1789, and 1814." - Wikipedia

  • Lyre Paradox
    Lyre ParadoxVor 24 Tage

    I offer up this comment on the alter of the great algorithm, that you may look favorably upon this video and recommend it often.

  • boring bilal
    boring bilalVor 24 Tage

    This is my new favorite science channel!

  • Christopher Ellis
    Christopher EllisVor 24 Tage

    Albedo, not " albido"